Problems that are much too complicated for conventional computers to comprehend will be amenable to solutions by quantum computers. This involves deciphering the algorithms underlying the encryption keys that safeguard our data and the technical foundation of the Internet.
Today’s encryption relies heavily on mathematical calculations that would be impractically difficult for modern computers to decrypt. Consider multiplying two huge integers together to make this easier to understand. The product is simple to calculate, but it is considerably more difficult to start with a huge integer and factor it into its two prime numbers. However, a quantum computer can quickly factor in those numbers and decipher the code. Shor’s algorithm, created by Peter Shor, is a quantum algorithm that factors big numbers much more quickly than a classical computer. Since then, researchers have been attempting to create quantum computers with an ever-increasing number of factoring capabilities.
It’s important to note that the threat posed by quantum encryption is not primarily focused on perishable sensitive data. The susceptibility of data that must maintain its confidentiality for the foreseeable future, such as data at the level of national security, financial data, privacy act data, etc., poses a bigger danger. Those are the secrets that should be secured with quantum-proof encryption right away, especially in light of the fact that nefarious individuals are taking them while they wait for a quantum computer that can decrypt the encryption.